The Republic of Kazakhstan

Geography
Kazakhstan is located in the centre of the Eurasian continent. Its territory is as large as 2 million 724,9 thousand square kilometers and accordingly it occupies the 9th place in the world by its size. In the North and West the republic has common borders with Russia — 7 591 km (the longest continuous overland border in the world), in the East with China — 1 783 km, in the South with Kyrgyzstan — 1 242 km, with Uzbekistan — 2 351 km and with Turkmenistan — 426 km. The total length of overland borders — 13 200 km. Besides that, there are two midland seas in its territory – the Caspian and Aral. Kazakhstan is the largest country in the world that has no direct access to the World ocean.
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A large part of the country’s territory consists of deserts — 44 % and semi-deserts — 14 %. Steppes cover 26 % of Kazakhstan’s territory, forests — 5,5 %. There are 8,5 thousand rivers In Kazakhstan. The Northeastern part of the Caspian sea’s water area is situated within the country’s territory. The Aral sea is shared between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. There are 48 000 big and small lakes in Kazakhstan. The largest of them are Aral sea, Balkhash, Zaisan and Alakol. [1]

 

Population
  • The current population of Kazakhstan is 18,322,924 as of Sunday, February 4, 2018, based on the latest United Nations estimates.
  • Kazakhstan population is equivalent to 0.24% of the total world population.
  • Kazakhstan ranks number 64 in the list of countries (and dependencies) by population.
  • The population density in Kazakhstan is 7 per Km2 (17 people per mi2).
  • The total land area is 2,699,700 Km2 (1,042,360 sq. miles)
  • 50.0 % of the population is urban (9,096,503 people in 2018)
  • The median age in Kazakhstan is 29.6 years. [2]
Demographics
According to the national census the ethnic structure of the Kazakhstan society by 2009 looks as follows [1]:
  • Kazakhs — 63,07 %
  • Russians — 23,70 %
  • Uzbeks — 2,85 %
  • Ukrainians — 2,08 %
  • Uygurs — 1,40 %
  • Tatars — 1,28 %
  • Germans — 1,11 %
  • Others — 4,51 %
Etymology
The name «Kazakh» comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, «to wander», reflecting the Kazakhs’ nomadic culture.[20] The name «Cossack» is of the same origin.[20]The Persian suffix -stan means «land» or «place of», so Kazakhstan can be literally translated as «land of the wanderers».
Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other neighbouring countries, the term «Kazakh» is increasingly being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. [3]
History
Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region’s climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle. The Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse (i.e. ponies) in the region’s vast steppes. Central Asia was originally inhabited by the Scythians. According to the Jewish historian, Josephus, areas of Bactria (southern Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan) were also inhabited earlier by a Semitic race of Aramaeans, the sons of Gather. [3]
Politics
The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government.  According to the constitution, the state proclaims itself a democratic, secular, legal and social state whose highest values are an individual, his life, rights and freedoms.
Kazakhstan gained independence on December 16, 1991. The capital is the city of Astana. The state language is Kazakh. The Russian language has the status of a language of interethnic communication. Monetary unit — tenge. [1]
Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). It is an active participant in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Partnership for Peace program . [4]
Economy
The Republic of Kazakhstan is an industrial country with mining operations being one of the main sources of its economic growth. The country’s mineral raw material base consists of more than 5 000 deposits which expected value is estimated at tens of trillion US dollars. The country holds first place in the world with regard to explored reserves of zinc, tungsten and barite, second — silver, lead and chromites, third — copper and fluorite, fourth — molybdenum, sixth — gold.
Kazakhstan also has considerable reserves of oil and gas, which are concentrated in its western areas. Nowadays the country belongs to the group of the world’s leading oil-producing states with volumes amounting to more than 80 million tons of oil and gas condensate a year. According to plans the annual extraction will be increased to 120 million tons by 2020. At present Kazakhstan is in 9th place in the world with regard to confirmed reserves of oil. Besides that, the country is in 8th place by the reserves of coal and 2nd place by the reserves of uranium. [1]

 

In a short historical term — from the moment of gaining independence in 1991 GDP per capita has increased by 16 times — from 700 to 12 000 US dollars. Over the years of independence Kazakhstan attracted 150 billion US dollars of foreign investments that makes up about 70 % of the total amount of all investments attracted to the Central Asia. The country’s international reserves as of June 1, 2012 made up about 85 billion US dollars, of them more than 50 billion US dollars are related to the National fund.
In the World bank’s 2011 “Doing Business” ranking Kazakhstan took 47th place, leaving behind all CIS countries. In the 2011 World Competitiveness ranking of the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) the country was in 36th place being ahead of Indonesia, Turkey, Italy and many other countries.
Kazakhstan’s foreign trade turnover in 2011 made up more than 125 billion dollars. The main export goods are produced in the mining, fuel and energy, metallurgical, chemical and grain industries. The country’s main  trading partners are Russia, China, European countries and the CIS. [1]
Green energy
The government has set the goals that a transition to the Green Economy in Kazakhstan occur by 2050. The green economy is projected to increase GDP by 3% and create more than 500,000 new jobs. [5]
The government of Kazakhstan has set prices for energy produced from renewable sources. The price of 1 kilowatt-hour for energy produced by wind power plants was set at 22.68 tenge ($0.12). The price for 1 kilowatt-hour produced by small hydro-power plants is 16.71 tenge ($0.09), and from biogas plants 32.23 tenge ($0.18). [6]
References
[1]http://www.akorda.kz/ru/official_documents/the-republic-of-kazakhstan_1342074984
[2]http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/kazakhstan-population/
[3]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakhstan
[4]https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_82584.htm
[5]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281963073_Towards_Achieving_Energy_Efficicency_in_Kazakhstan
[6]https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-06-13/kazakhstan-sets-prices-for-energy-from-renewable-sources

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